The first Mass of the Sacred Heart Parish was celebrated on September 11, 1904, in Memorial Hall. Land for a church was bought in 1907 to serve the 260 French Canadian families then living in the area. By January 21, 1909 construction was underway at a site at 58 Church Street. The first Mass was celebrated in the basement of the unfinished church in August 1909.
Sacred Heart would remain a "basement church" for the next twenty years. The upper section was completed in June 1929 by contractor James A. Munroe (1882 to 1948). By that time, the Sacred Heart Parish was comprised of 490 families.
The church's Sacred Heart School was dedicated on October 28, 1923. The first graduating class numbered eleven students and held its commencement in June 1926. Thirty years later, in November 1956, a convent was dedicated to a nearby Church Street site.
Today Sacred Heart Church has a unique look, being a church without a steeple. Both the steeple and bell tower were razed in 1981 because of extensive damage caused by dry rot and powder post beetles.
Sacred Heart Church is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of North Attleborough's High, Church, and Gould Streets Historic District.